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Animal Science Faculty

Jeff Firman

Jeff Firman


Professor


Poultry Production and Nutrition Specialist

116A Animal Science Research Center
Division Of Animal Sciences
Columbia, MO 65211

Education


  • University of Nebraska-Lincoln

    1977-81 B.S. Animal Science
  • University of Nebraska-Lincoln

    1982-83 M.S. Animal Science
  • University of Maryland

    1984-87 Ph.D.Poultry Science

Current Responsibilities


50% Research, 25% Teaching, 15% Extension and 10% service. In addition Dr. Firman has responsibility for the poultry processing facility and the Rocheford Farm which handles approximately 20,000 animals per year.

Employment History and Academic Appointments


  • Consultant (USAID, various groups) 1995-present
  • Professor, MU Dept. of Animal Science 1998- present
  • Associate Professor, MU Dept. of Animal Science 1993-1998
  • Assistant Professor, MU Dept. of Animal Science 1987-1993
  • Grad. Asst. U. of Maryland, Dept of Poultry Sci. 1984-1986
  • Grad. Asst. U. of Nebraska, Dept. of Animal Sci. 1982-1983
  • Bennet Turkey Farm - Working Manager 1981
  • Bevans Turkey Farm - Working Manager 1979-1980
  • Taco Bell - Employee-Asst. Manager 1976-1979

Honors and Awards


  • Ruth Keller Memorial Scholarship, 1979
  • Nebraska Poultry Industries Award, 1980
  • Poultry Science Association, Research Presentation Award (Physiology Section), 1983
  • Shaffner Research Presentation Award, 1986
  • Gamma Sigma Delta Agricultural Honor Society, 1988
  • Animal Science Department Teaching Award, 1991
  • Animal Science Department Teaching Award, 1992
  • College of Agriculture Teaching Award, 1992
  • National Association of College Teachers of Agriculture Award, 1992
  • Poultry Science Association Teaching Award, 1993
  • Gamma Sigma Delta Ag Honor Society, Teaching Award, 1994
  • Teaching Scholar, 1998
  • Kemper Fellow (undergraduate teaching), 1998
  • MU Global Scholar, 1999
  • Crossing Boundaries Professor, 1999
  • Truman Award (Sports Club Advisor) 2001
  • Mizzou 39 (Faculty mentor) 2006

Professional Organizations


Poultry Science Association

WPSA

World Aquaculture Society

Research


A. Percent Effort for the Current Year 50%
B. Narrative Summary of Accomplishments

Background

The turkey industry is a relatively small portion of animal agriculture at approximately $5 billion per year in the US, but relatively speaking a major portion of the state’s animal agriculture. Turkeys are primarily a US phenomena with a few birds raised in Europe and Israel. No turkeys are raised commercially in the rest of the world although turkey is exported to several countries from the US. The turkey research program revolves around the Land Grant philosophy of ‘Problem Solving Research’. Thus the program seeks to address problems that affect the turkey industry in the state and nationwide and that will ultimately serve the public through reduced costs for an excellent low fat protein source.

Publication of this research is based on our clientele group which is professional nutritionists and industry leaders. The primary journals for dissemination of this knowledge are Poultry Science and the Journal of Applied Poultry Research. We maintain a close relationship with a variety of industry groups to ascertain the important areas of research as well as providing us with funding sources for the research undertaken. The major portion of the research program revolves around applied nutrition of the turkey. While a number of projects have been researched, the focus of the program is in the area of protein (amino acid) and energy nutrition of the growing turkey. Protein and energy are the major cost components of the turkey diet and account for about 90% of the cost of feed. Feed costs change with ingredient prices (ie. corn), but approximately 15 billion pounds of feed are fed each year for a total value near $1.5 billion. The research described below has been estimated to have the potential to save the industry $100 million per year with a minimal lifespan of 20 years for a potential savings of approximately $2 billion.

The feeding of turkeys has changed little in the past 25 years. With respect to my area of research, the amino acid requirements used today are primarily based on some old research from the early 70’s using bronze turkeys. Genetic selection of the turkey has changed growth rates from this time by over 50% and we have not raised bronze turkeys commercially since the mid-70’s. In fact in the most recent version of the National Research Council’s Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, there is only one citation related to amino acids in turkeys over the past decade. With this background in place, the turkey research program at MU has taken a very mechanistic approach to understanding amino acid nutrition of the turkey and moving the industry forward in this respect. MU is now considered by many to have the top research program in the nation in the area of amino acid nutrition of the turkey.

Scholarly Activity

Since amino acid nutrition of the turkey had not changed in such a long time a new approach to the problem needed to be addressed. Research at MU is now leading the way to formulation of diets based on digestible amino acids and what are referred to as ideal proteins. Digestibility refers to the actual quantity of amino acids in feedstuffs that are utilized by the bird rather than the total amount in the feed (irregardless of usability by the turkey). Ideal protein refers to the exact need for amino acids for maximum growth, but without the excess amino acids currently being fed due to the poor information about requirements. Ideal proteins are based on digestible amino acids with lysine as the base set at 100% with all other amino acids related to lysine on a percentage basis. Several problems have plagued the research database for a number of years. The first of these was the lack of data on amino acid digestibility in the turkey. The second was the inability for the past 30 years to formulate a diet with extremely low intact crude protein. This diet is a necessity if amino acids are to be titrated to determine the exact levels needed to determine an ideal protein. The overall objective of the research program for the past decade has been to determine an ideal protein for turkeys. A great deal of progress has been made in this direction with the recent publication and presentation of an ideal ratio now referred to as the Missouri Ideal Turkey Profile. Major program highlights are listed below:

Majority of published work on the amino acid digestibility of feeds for turkeys using the cecectomized turkey model
Showed that digestibility differs between the chicken and turkey (previously it was assumed they were similar)
Only successful work to formulate a low protein (40% reduction in intact protein) diet that is the basis of all future work delineating digestible amino acid requirements in the young turkey
First work on digestible lysine requirements of the turkey, the basis for an ideal protein
First published ideal protein for turkeys: Missouri Ideal Turkey Profile
First published work to show that fat additions affect digestibility, an explanation for the previously unexplained ‘extracaloric’ value of fat
Determined the digestible lysine to metabolizable energy level (previously published work would indicate that no relationship existed between protein/amino acids and energy)

Recognition

The research program has been well recognized with invitations to speak at most major nutrition conferences in the US and over $2,500,000 in research funding. In addition I have given symposia at my scientific society (Poultry Science) twice and had several job offers from several other universities as well as industry. An industry survey ranked Dr. Firman as one of the top nutritionists in the US.

Publications and Presentation Summary


Refereed Publications = 50
Invited Presentations = 42
Society Presentations and abstracts = 43

Invited Research Presentations


Firman, J.D., 1991. Coban in turkeys: Effects of heat stress. Eli Lily Turkey Nutrition Conference.Indianapolis, June 1991. Proceedings published by Elanco Animal Health.

Firman, J.D., 1992. Nutrient availability in turkey diets. Novus International Symposium, Lisbon, Portugal. October 1992. Proceedings published by NOVUS Europe.

Firman, J.D., 1993. Digestible amino acids in feedstuffs for turkeys. California Nutrition Conference, Fresno, CA May 1993. Proceedings published by the California Animal Nutrition Conference.

Firman, J.D., 1993. Utilization of high fat/high protein finisher diets for turkeys: performance and body composition. Multi-States Poultry Conference.Indianapolis May 1993. Proceedings published by the Multi- States consortium.

Firman, J.D., 1993. Amino acid digestibility in turkeys. Arkansas Nutrition Conference. Fayetteville, September 1993. Proceedings published by the Arkansas Poultry Federation.

Firman, J.D., 1993. Low protein amino acid supplemented diets for turkeys. Biokyowa Technical Symposium. St. Louis October 1993. Proceedings published by Biokyowa, Inc.

Firman, J.D.,1993. Digestibility of feedstuffs in turkeys. Carolina Nutrition Conference. Charlotte December 1993. Proceedings published by the Carolina Feed Industry Association.

Firman, J.D., 1994. Reducing feed costs with winter environmental control. Arkansas Poultry Conference, Fayetteville, April 1994.

Firman, J.D., 1994. Turkey growth modeling: A metabolic approach. Poultry Science Association, Nutrition Symposium. Mississippi State University. August 1994. Proceedings published in the J. Applied Poultry Research.

Firman, J.D.,1994. Substitution of fish meal in poultry diets. Midwest Feeds Consortium-Fish Nutrition Conference.Des Moines December 1994. Proceedings published by the Midwest Feeds Consortium.

Firman, J.D., 1995. Protein and energy utilization for turkeys. Griffin Industries Technical Symposium.Cincinnati, April, 1995. Proceedings published by Griffin Industries.

Firman, J.D., 1996. Reduced protein diets for turkeys. Eli Lily Turkey Technical Symposium.Indianapolis June, 1995. Proceedings published by Elanco Animal Health.

Firman, J.D.,1996. Formulation of turkey diets on a digestible amino acid basis. Multi-State Poultry Feeding and Nutrition Conference. Indianapolis, May 1996. Proceeding published by the Multi-State consortium.

Firman, J.D., 1996. Biogenic amines in broiler rations. AFIA Conference. St. Louis, November 1996.

Firman, J.D., 1996. Ideal protein and amino acid nutrition of turkeys. Carolina Nutrition Conference. Charlotte, December 1996. Proceedings published by the Carolina Feed Industry Ass.

Firman, J.D., 1997. Early stage turkey nutrition:Ideal protein and implications for all aspects of poultry production. Louisville, AllTech International Technical Symposium. April 1997. Nottingham University Press

Firman, J.D., 1997. Ideal protein for turkeys. Poultry Science Assn. Nutrition Symposium. Athens, GA. August 1997. Proceedings published in Poultry Science.

Firman, J.D., 1998. Protein Nutrition of Turkeys: Use of Precision Feeding Techniques. Turkeys Conference, UK. Proceedings in Conference Handbook

Firman, J.D., 1998. Ideal protein for turkeys. Minnesota Nutrition Conference Proceedings published in Conference handbook

Firman, J.D., 1999. Precision feeding of turkeys. Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Firman, J.D., 2000. Update on the Missouri Ideal Turkey Protein. Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Firman, J.D., 2000. Utilization of fat from rendered by-products in broiler rations. National Renderers Association Technical Symposium, Izmir and Bolu, Turkey; Cairo, Egypt. 3 presentations

Firman, J.D., 2000. Modern production techniques of poultry. Various sites India. 6 presentations

Firman, J.D., 2000. Precision feeding of poultry to reduce waste. Chonnam University Research Conference, Chonnam S. Korea

Firman, J.D., 2001. Modern poultry production techniques. North Korean Academy of Sciences, Pyongyang, North Korea

Firman, J.D., 2001. Low protein diets for poultry. Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Firman, J.D., 2001 Digestible amino acid formulation of poultry diets. Manila, other sites, Philippines, Malaysia 6 presentations

Firman, J.D., 2001. Energy and Protein/Amino Acid Relationships in Poultry, Venezuelan Poultry Congress, Maricaibo

Firman, J.D., 2001 Digestible amino acid formulation of poultry diets. Sarawak, Borneo

Firman, J.D., 2002 Diet Formulation Strategies for the Future in Poultry : Digestible Formulation. Pretoria and Stellenbosch University, South Africa 2 presentations

Firman, J.D., 2002 Formulation Strategies for the Future in Poultry : Digestible Formulation. Bolu and Izmir , Turkey 2 presentations

Firman, J.D., 2002. Utilization of meat and bone meal in poultry rations. Cairo, Egypt.

Firman, J.D., 2002. Control of Poultry Disease Outbreaks. Tokyo and Osaka, Japan

Firman, J.D., 2002. Production of poultry without growth promoting antibiotics (presented by Dr Bermudez) Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Firman, J.D., 2003. Computer formulation of low protein diets. Multi-state Poultry Mtg

Firman, J.D., 2003. Animal protein ingredients in poultry diets. FPRF Forum

Firman, J.D., 2003. Use of fats from the rendering industry. NRA-Moscow

Firman, J.D., 2003. Use of by-product feeds in poultry. NRA- Moscow

Firman, J.D., 2003. Use of fats from the rendering industry. NRA-Cairo

Firman, J.D., 2003. Use of poultry by-product meal from the rendering industry. NRA-Cairo

Firman, J.D., 2003. Recent research on use of by-product feeds in poultry. AFIA

Firman, J.D., 2003. Use of by-product feeds in poultry. Minnesota Nutrition Conference

Firman, J.D., 2004. Computer formulation strategies, Kosovo

Firman, J.D., 2005. Avian influenza: An overview for veterinary Professionals – Moldova- 3 presentations

Firman, J.D., 2006. Avian influenza: An overview for veterinary Professionals – Azerbaijan 5 presentations

Firman, J.D., 2006. A new approach to aquaculture nutrition, North Central Regional Aquaculture Conference

Firman, J.D., 2006. Fish Nutrition, World Aquaculture Conference

Firman, J.D., 2006. Global outlook for Avian influenza, UN-FAO

Firman, J.D., 2006. Use of rendered fats in poultry feed, Reducing feed costs through computer formulation strategies, National Renderers Assn: Beijing, Qingdao, Weifeng, Chengdu- August. 10 presentations

Firman, J.D., 2006. Use of rendered fats in poultry feed, Reducing feed costs through computer formulation strategies, National Renderers Assn: Jakarta, Surabaya Indonesia- August. 2 presentations

Firman, J.D., 2006. Use of rendered fats in poultry feed, Reducing feed costs through computer formulation strategies, National Renderers Assn: HoChiMin City, Vietnam- August. 2 presentations

Firman, J.D., 2006. Use of rendered fats in poultry feed, Reducing feed costs through computer formulation strategies, National Renderers Assn: Nigeria 4 presentations

Firman, J.D., 2006. Low protein diets for poultry, Arkansas Nutrition Conference- September

Refereed journal papers


Papers published after 1988 were from research at MU. A percent credit is given for each paper at the end of the citation. Graduate students were not counted in the percent effort although they were first author in many cases as is typical in my field. Only faculty percentages were split.

Firman, J.D. and M.M. Beck, 1984. GABA in brain tissue of paroxysmal (px) chicks. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 79C(1):143-145. (graduate work)

Firman, J.D. and M.M. Beck, 1985. Energy metabolism in audiogenically seizure-prone chicks. Poultry Sci. 64:732-736. (graduate work)

Firman, J.D. and W.J. Kuenzel, 1988. Neuroanatomical regions of the chick brain involved in monitoring amino acid deficient diets. Brain Res. Bull. 21(4):637-642. (graduate work)

Firman, J.D. and B.N. Kirn, 1989. Effects of Monensin and Bambermycins on performance of market turkeys. Poultry Sci. 68:1724-1726. 100%

Firman, J.D. and M.R. Schaffner, 1989. Effects of amino acid deficiency or excess on glucose and uric acid in the turkey. Nutrition Reports International 40(3):529-534. 100%

Firman, J.D. and J.C. Remus, 1989. Utilization of spreadsheet software for simulating monetary returns of a layer enterprise in an egg production course. NACTA Journal, December 1989, Vol. 33(4):18-19. 100%

Remus, J.C. and J.D. Firman, 1990. Effect of thiamine deficiency on energy metabolites in the turkey. J. Nutr. Biochem. 1(12):636-639. 100%

Firman, J.D. and R.F. Volmert,1991. Naloxone inhibits drinking in the chick induced by Angiotensin II. Poultry Sci. 70(9):2010-2012. 100%

Remus, J.C. and J.D. Firman, 1991. Efficacy of lateral ventricular injection of epinephrine, cyproheptadine or adenosine triphosphate on feed intake in thiamin-deficient turkeys. Poultry Science 70:2340-2344. 100%

Remus, J.C. and J. D. Firman, 1991. The effect of thiamine deficiency on amino acids in the brain, liver, and plasma of the turkey. Poultry Science 70:2345-2353. 100%

Volmert, R. F. and J. D. Firman, 1991. Water and NaCl intake of chicks as mediated by angiotensin II, renin, or salt deficiency. Physiol. Behav. 50:921-927. 100%

Volmert, R. F. and J. D. Firman, 1992. Response to angiotensin II after selective lesioning of brain regions believed to be involved in water intake regulation. Poultry Science. 71:1073-1078. 100%

Firman, J. D. , 1992. The writing intensive experience in a poultry production course. NACTA Journal 36(2):19-20. 100%

Firman, J. D., 1992. Failure of hippocampal lesions to influence feed and water intake in the chick. Poultry Science 71:2122-2124. 100%

Kirn, B.N. and J.D. Firman, 1993. Leg strength and performance of large white toms fed varying protein and energy levels. Avian Diseases 37(1): 37-46. 100%

Firman, J.D., 1992. Amino acid digestibilities of soybean meal and meat meal in male and female turkeys of different ages. J. Applied Poultry Research 1:350-354. 100%

Firman, J. D. and J. C. Remus, 1993. Amino acid digestibilities of feedstuffs in female turkeys. J. Applied Poultry Research. 2:171-176. 100%

Firman, J.D. and J.C. Remus, 1994. Fat additions increase digestibility of meat and bone meal. J. Applied Poultry Research 3:80-83. 100%

Firman, J. D., 1994. Utilization of low protein diets for turkeys (Review) Biokyowa Technical Review Series. 100%

Firman, J. D., 1994. Turkey growth modeling: A metabolic approach. J. Applied Poultry Science 4:373-378. 100%

Rivas, F and Firman, J. D., 1994.Performance and carcass traits of turkeys fed diets varying energy and protein content during a three week finisher period. J. Applied Poultry Science 4:327-335. 100%

Kidd, M.T., B.J. Kerr, J.D. Firman, and S.D. Boling, 1996. Growth and carcass characteristics of broilers fed low protein-threonine supplemented diets. J. Applied Poultry Research 5:180-190. 50%

Eissler, C.R. and J.D. Firman, 1996 Effects of feather meal on the performance of turkeys. J. Applied Poultry Research 5:246-253. 100%

Boling, S.D. and J.D. Firman, 1997. Digestible sulfur amino acid requirement of starting turkeys. Poultry Sci. 76:873-877. 100%

Boling, S.D. and J.D. Firman, 1997. A low protein diet for turkey poults. Poultry Sci. 76:1298-1301. 100%

Boling, S.D. and J.D. Firman, 1997. Utilization of rendered by-products as soybean meal replacement in starter turkey rations formulated on a digestible amino acid basis. J. Applied Poultry Res. 6:210-215. 100%

Firman, J.D. and S.D. Boling, 1998. Ideal protein in turkeys. Poultry Sci. 77:105-110. 100%

Williams, J.E. R.L. Belyea, F.H. Hsieh and J.D. Firman, 1998. Responses of growing turkeys to the dietary inclusion of inedible pasta and unextruded and extruded biosolids from milk processing. Animal Feed Sci. Tech. 70:123-136. 10%

Bermudez, A.J. and J.D. Firman, 1998. Effects of biogenic amines in broiler chickens. Avian Diseases 42:199-203. 70%

Boling, S.D. and J.D. Firman, 1998. Digestible lysine requirement of female turkeys during the starter period. Poultry Sci. 77:547-551. 100%

Schulz, J. H.; A.J. Bermudez; J.L. Tomlinson; J.D. Firman and H. Zhuoqiong, 1998. Effects of implanted radiotransmitters on captive mourning doves. J. Wildlife Management 62(4):1451-1460. (10%)

Kamyab, A and J. D. Firman,1999. Digestible valine requirement of female nicholas poults during the starter period. J. Appl. Poul. Res. 8(3):339-344 (100%)

Friday, M., J. D. Firman and A. Bermudez, 1999. Effects of biogenic amines on broiler performance. J. Appl. Poul. Res. 8(4):408-413 100%

Firman, J. D., 1999. Invited review: Comparitive Avian Nutrition. The Quarterly Review of Biology 74:358. (100%)

Kamyab, A and J. D. Firman, 2000. Digestible threonine requirement of female nicholas poults during the starter period. J. Appl. Poul. Res. 9(1):62-65. (100%)

Schulz, J. H.; A.J. Bermudez; J.L. Tomlinson; J.D. Firman and H. Zhuoqiong, 2000. Blood plasma chemistries from wild mourning doves held in captivity. J. Wildlife Diseases 36(3):541-545. (10%)

D. T. Moore, K. Baker, and J. D. Firman, 2001. Digestible sulfur amino acid requirement for male turkeys to five weeks of age. J. Appl. Poul. Res. 10(4):363-370. (100%)

Schulz, J. H.; A.J. Bermudez; J.L. Tomlinson; J.D. Firman and H. Zhuoqiong, 2001. Comparison of radiotransmitter attachment techniques with captive mourning doves.Wildlife Society Bulletin 29(3): 771-782. (10%)

Lamberson , WR and JD Firman, 2002. A comparison of quadratic versus segmented regression procedures for estimating nutrient requirements. Poultry Science 81:481-484. (40%)

The effect of enzyme treatment of soybean meal on oligosaccharide disappearance and chick growth performance. Graham, K.K.; Kerley, M.S.; Firman, J.D., Poultry science.81 (7) 1014-1019. (20%)

Baker,K.;JD Firman;E Blair; J Brown and D Moore, 2003. Digestible lysine requirements of male turkeys during the 6-12 week period. Int. J. Poultry Sci. 2:97-101. 100%

Baker,K.;JD Firman;E Blair; J Brown and D Moore, 2003. Digestible lysine requirements of male turkeys during the 12-18 week period. Int. J. Poultry Sci. 2:229-233. 100%

Moore, D; K Baker.; K Thompson; E Blair; and JD Firman, 2003. Digestible sulfur amino acid requirements of male turkeys during the 12-18 week period. Int. J. Poultry Sci. 100%

Moore, D; K Baker.; K Thompson; E Blair; and JD Firman, 2004. Digestible sulfur amino acid requirements of male turkeys from 6-12 weeks J. Applied Poultry Research. (in press) 100%

Blair, E; H Allen; S Brooks; JD Firman; D Robbins; K Nishimura and H Ishimaru, 2004. Effects of Calsporin on turkey performance, carcass yield and nitrogen reduction. Int J Poultry Science 3:75-79. 100%

J Brown, J Firman et al Digestible SAA requirements for maintenance in the starting turkey, 2005. Int J of Poultry Science 4:737-740 90%

D.H. Robbins and J.D. Firman. Evaluation of the Metabolizable Energy of Meat and Bone Meal for Chickens and Turkeys by Various Methods International Journal of Poultry Science 4 (9): 633-638, 2005 90%

Digestible Lysine Requirements of Hen Turkeys from 6 to 12 Weeks of Age
K.A Thompson, K.A. Baker and J.D. Firman International Journal of Poultry Science 4 (9): 639-644, 2005 90%

Abstracts of Society Meetings


43 Abstracts published

Grants, Gifts and Contracts Awarded


1987:
MU Research Council Grant; "Effect of Intracerebroventricular Injections of Catecholamines on Food Intake in Thiamine-deficient Turkeys" $5,088
Missouri Research Assistance Act & Missouri Turkey Federation; "Effect of Coccidia Vaccination and Litter Type on Growth of Market Turkeys and Use of Turkey Litter as a Pasture Fertilizer". Co-investigator with J.M.Vandepopuliere $38,424
Total/yr = $ 43,512

1988:
Missouri Research Assistance Act & Missouri Turkey Federation; "Protein and Energy Requirements of Tom Turkeys and the Relationship to Incidence of Leg Disorders" $22,500
Eli Lilly "Bambermycin Plus Coban in Growing Turkeys" $10,165
Missouri Research Assistance Act & Biokyowa, Inc; "Threonine Requirements of the Domestic Turkey" $15,267
Total/yr = $ 47,932

1989:
Missouri Research Assistance Act & Missouri Turkey Federation; "Parameter Estimation for Computer Formulation of Commercial Turkey Diets Based on Weather Pattern Prediction" $30,000
BioKyowa, Inc. Gift to study amino acids in turkeys. $13,750
Hatch Fellowship awarded to Robert Volmert (J.D. Firman, Advisor) $1000

Total/yr = $ 44,750
1990:
MU Research Council; "Elicitation of Thirst and Salt Appetite in Domestic Fowl" $4788
Missouri Turkey Federation; “Gift to perform turkey research” $5,000
Hatch Fellowship awarded to Robert Volmert (J.D. Firman, Advisor) $1,000
Agr. Exp. Sta. Water Quality Grant "Composting Dead Swine on the Farm" (Co- investigator with Trygve Veum, P.I.) $7,500
F21C Nutrition Cluster (Capital Equipment/Supplies) "Opioid Regulation of Food Intake in the Chick: Biogenic Amine Relationships" $4,995
Pioneer Hybrids; "Product Development Trials (PDT)" $2,000
Eli Lilly; "Coban in Market Turkeys" $7,500
Missouri Research Assistance Act and Nutriquest, Inc. "Digestibility of amino acids by turkeys" $22,500
Total/yr = $55,283

1991:
Eli Lilly; "Heat Stress in Coban Treated Turkeys" $6,400
Eli Lilly; "Coban in Market Turkeys” $6,600
F21C Nutrition Cluster Grant (Capital Equipment/Supplies) $5000
Nutriquest (Biokyowa, Inc.); "Digestibility of amino acids in feedstuffs for turkeys" $15,000
Agriculture Experiment Station Hatch Grant; "Interrelationships of opioid peptides and biogenic amines in regulation of food intake in the chick" $10,000
Total/yr = $ 43,000

1992:
Missouri Turkey Federation; Industrial Gift for turkey research. $5000
Fats and Proteins Research Foundation, Inc.; "Utilization of high fat/high protein diets for turkeys: performance and body composition when finished on high protein-low energy diets" $23,900
F21C Nutrition Cluster Grant; “Propagation and characterization studies of the anorexia associated with the paroxysmal (px) chick” $5000
Novus International; “True metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility in feedstuffs” $5000
Total/yr = $ 38,900

1993:
Novus International; “True metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility in feedstuffs” $15,000
Megan Animal Health; “Salmonella vaccine use in poultry” $6,000
Gift for processing plant $100,000
Total/yr = $ 121,000

1994:
Fats and Proteins Research Foundation, Inc.; “Replacement of soybean meal in starter rations of turkeys” $26,500
NutriQuest, Inc.; “Reduced protein diets for turkeys” $17,000
Megan Animal Health; “Salmonella vaccine use in poultry” $6,000
Novus International; “True metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility in feedstuffs” $5000
Ralston Purina; “Correlation of feedstuff energy content in roosters with dogs” $5,000
Missouri Turkey Federation; “Industrial Gift” $5,000
British United Turkeys; “Performance of different strains of turkeys maintained under similar environmental conditions” $7,500
Nicholas Turkeys; “Performance of different strains of turkeys maintained under similar environmental conditions” $3,750
Hybrid Turkeys; “Performance of different strains of turkeys maintained under similar environmental conditions” $3,750
Mu Extension Service; “Utilization of flood damaged corn in broilers” $2,000
Choretime, Inc.; “Donated feed bin” $2,000
Biokyowa, Inc.; “Donation of amino acids” $3,000
Missouri Turkey Federation; “Gift for turkey research” $5,000
Missouri Soybean Merchandising Council; “Roasted soybeans as a replacement for soybean meal in the rations of turkeys” $27,750
Fats and Proteins Research Foundation; “Effects of Biogenic amines from animal products on broiler performance” $28,500
Tyson Foods; Amino acid digestibility of feeds using expansion versus pelleting” $4,925
NutriQuest, Inc.; “Reduction of nitrogenous waste through low protein diets” $2000
Total/yr = $ 154,675

1995.
Biokyowa Inc.; “Donation of amino acids” $3,000
NutriQuest Inc.; “Threonine additions to broiler diets”$12,000
American Crop Protection Assn.; “Gift to support turkey research” $7500

Total/yr = $ 22,500

1996:
Novus International; “True metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility in feedstuffs” $6000
Megan Animal Health; “Salmonella vaccine use in poultry” $11,500
FinnSugars Inc.; “True metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility in feedstuffs” $600
Pioneer Hybrids; “True metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility in feedstuffs” $5000

Bilmar Foods; “True metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility in feedstuffs for turkeys” $1300
Eli Lily; “ Use of Coban in diets for market turkeys” $23,000
Immvac, Inc.; Use of toxoids for salmonella control” $3200
Heartland Lysine, Inc.; “Ideal protein in turkeys” $25,000
Eli Lily; A Bermudez (PI) “The effects of monensin on the physiologic status of tom turkey poults” $6000 ($16,500 total award)
Missouri Department of Conservation; J Schultz (PI). “Implantation of transmitter devices in Mourning Doves $13,500 ($39,700 total award)
Missouri Soybean Merchandising Council; M Kerley (PI) “Use of enzymes to alleviate sticky droppings in poultry” $14,000 ($72,000 total award)
Pioneer Hybrids; G Allee (PI) “Evaluation of the nutritional value of corn hybrids” $3500 ($24,000 total award)
Total/yr = $ 112,600 PI

1997:
Zapata Proteins, Inc.; “Fish oil use in turkeys” $12,000
National Cottonseed Assn.; “Amino acid digestibility in various cottonseed products” $4300
Heartland Lysine, Inc.; “Ideal protein in turkeys” $25,000
BASF, Germany; D Ledoux (PI) “Use of phytase enzymes in turkeys” $6000 ($24,000 total award)
Missouri Department of Conservation; J Schultz (PI). “Implantation of transmitter devices in Mourning Doves $20,800 ($97,556 total award)
Missouri Soybean Merchandising Council; “Digestible lysine and sulfur amino acid requirements of turkeys” $52,500
FinnSugar,Inc.; “Effects of Betaine in young turkeys” $9,000
Megan Animal Health; “Salmonella vaccine use in poultry” $14,000
Pioneer Hybrids; “Evaluation of corn hybrids” $12,000
Fats and Proteins Research Foundation; “Use of High Levels of Rendered By-Products in
Turkey Rations” $29,000
Total/yr = $ 184,680

1998
Immvac “Toxoid testing in chickens”, $5,000
FinnSugar,Inc.; “Effects of Betaine in turkeys and broilers” $38,500
Pioneer Hybrids; “Evaluation of corn hybrids” $22,800
Heartland Lysine, Inc.; “Ideal protein in turkeys” $25,000
Megan Animal Health; “Salmonella vaccine use in poultry” $7500
Funk Estate Gift for turkey research $100,000
Total/yr = $ 198,800

1999
Megan Animal Health; “Salmonella vaccine use in poultry” $15,000

Missouri Soybean Merchandising Council; “Digestible lysine and methionine requirements of hen turkeys” $58,000
Optimum Quality Grains; “Use of high oil corn in turkeys” $32,000 With H. Heymann
FinnFeeds; “Use of betaine as an osmolyte in broilers” $20,000
Total/yr = $ 125,000

2000
“Effect of enzymatic treatment of corn-soy diets on performance, litter quality and meat characteristics of turkeys” $29,000
Energy of corn $11,000 Pioneer Hybrids
Fats and Protein Foundation, Energy content of Meat by-products, $34,000
Energy of corn $19,000 Pioneer Hybrids
“Salmonella vaccine use in poultry” $25,000 Megan Animal Health

Total/yr = $ 118,000

2001
Comparative digestibilities, $116,000 Cargill joint venture company
Energy values of feeds with different processing methods, $6500 Agribrands
Phytase source in turkeys, $25,000 Finnfeeds
“Salmonella vaccine use in poultry” $35,000 Megan Animal Health
Phytase in broilers, $10,000 Finnfeeds
Minnesota Corn Processors, Corn germ meal, $28,000
Energy of corn $13,000 Optimum Quality Grains
Slat floors for turkeys, $10,000 Novus International
Total/yr = $ 243,500

2002
Broiler trials 3 yrs @ $105,000+ $180,000 in kind support, Novus International
“Salmonella vaccine use in poultry” $29,000 Megan Animal Health
“Calsporin as an antibiotic replacement in turkeys” $20,000, Quality Traders Incorporated
“Phytase use in turkeys” $33,000, Danisco, Inc
Total/yr = $187,000

2003
Broiler trials $105,000, Novus International
Testing of Missouri Ideal Protein in Turkeys, $28,400 Midwest Poultry
Consortium
“Phytase use in turkeys” $29,000, Danisco, Inc
Total/yr = $ 162,400

2004
Broiler trials $105,000, Novus International
Enzyme trials $80,000 Danisco
Midwest Poultry Consortium (USDA) $40,000 Floor space requirements of turkeys
Utilization of rendered fats in comparison with soybean oil in rations of broilers from hatch to market. FPRF $45,000
Total/yr = $ 270,000

2005
Enzyme trials $40,000 Danisco
Effect of high peroxide value fats on performance of broilers in normal and immune challenged states $46,304 FPRF
Low protein diets for broilers Midwest Poultry Consortium (USDA) $80,000
New product evaluation, Griffin Industries $15,000
Total/yr = $ 181,304

2006
US Poultry and Egg Assn. Use of poultry by-product meal as a replacement for fishmeal $43,000
Star Labs, lactobacillus trial $30,000
INVE, Aflatoxins in feed $15,000
Biorigin, binder study $12,000
Degussa, Feed additives $27,000
Danisco, enzyme trial $13,000

1987-2005. Poults (57,000) and product donations (crystalline amino acids, coccidiostats, feedstuffs, etc.) have amounted to approximately $100,000. Funds have been used to pay for expenses at the farm such as feed and for technical support.

Total research funding obtained:
111 funded projects ~$2.5 million

Teaching


A. Percent Effort for Current Year
1. Resident Teaching 27%
2. Extension 13%
B. Summary of Responsibilities
1. Resident Teaching

Duties

During the past 20 years at Missouri, Dr. Firman had the opportunity to develop and teach 12 different courses and parts of several others courses as well as several guest lectures. A complete set of new materials was developed for each course or segment and all of these have been taught at least once.

Teaching Philosophy:
The primary area of instruction since accepting the position at MU has been in the area of poultry science and monogastric nutrition. Poultry as a species has not been viewed with favor by Animal Science students nationwide and for the most part poultry courses at Colleges without Poultry Science Departments have disappeared due to lack of student interest. With poultry being the number one source of animal sales in Missouri, there are a number of job opportunities for a BS graduate in this area. To maintain student interest it is essential to do an outstanding job in the classroom as well as to integrate poultry fully throughout the curriculum. I have made every attempt to influence curricular decisions and poultry is now integrated throughout our coursework in the Animal Science department. My work in the classroom has been rewarded with increased student interest in poultry with 20-70 students enrolled in Poultry Production for the past several years even as most land grants have seen students enrollment in poultry classes dramatically reduced.
I believe my role in life is to teach. Students need to be given a continuum of educational opportunities and experiences. Related to the area of poultry, this means students should have the abilities required of the basic employee at the farm or plant as well as the skills in science and management that they may need to perform their duties if they were placed in the poultry industry. In the classroom, this translates into a conceptual framework within which the knowledge base can be built. Since there is far too much information to remember, this framework can be used as the structure around which the reference information can be put to use. While there have been a number of awards for my classroom instruction, the best reward is when a manager at a poultry company compliments both the ability of my students and the high regard that students hold for MU.

Teaching Awards

Animal Science Departmental Teacher Award, 1991
Animal Science Departmental Teacher Award, 1992
College of Agriculture Teacher of the Year, Assistant Professor, 1992
National Association of College Teachers of Agriculture Award, 1992
Gamma Sigma Delta Teaching Award, 1993
Purina Mills Poultry Science Association Teaching Award, 1993
Kemper Fellowship, 1998
College of Agriculture Teaching Scholars, 1998
MU Global Scholar, 1999
Crossing Boundaries Professor, 1999
Truman Award (Sports Club Advisor) 2001
Mizzou ‘39 (Faculty mentor) 2006

Major Courses taught

AS 10 Freshman orientation
AS 15 Intro to Animal Science
AS 65 Animal Sciences Practicum
AS 110 Global Animal Ag (current)
AS 145 Poultry Judging
AS 175 Monogastric Production (current)
AS 302 Monogastric Nutrition (current)
AS 335 Poultry Meat production
AS 375 Poultry Production (current)
AS 400 Undergraduate Teaching in Animal Science
AS 452 Food Intake Regulation
AS 472 Amino Acid Metabolism

Description of selected teaching effort

AS 65 Animal Science Practicum:
Responsible for poultry section. Two weeks per semester of 25 hrs class per week. This is a freshman course taught each semester with 60-120 students. Students learn basic skill needed for handling poultry which include basic anatomy, bird care and equipment operation.

AS 175 Monogastric Animal Production
This is the second in a series of courses that explores the individual species of agricultural importance. The course is divided into three sections with each section covering 5 weeks of that species. I coordinate the course and teach the poultry section. Lecture class with 100-150 students.

AS 302 Monogastric Nutrition:
Responsible for entire course covering poultry and swine nutrition, computer formulation, feedmilling and ingredient usage. Lecture with 30-50 students

AS 375 Poultry Egg Production:
This course is currently taught as writing intensive. Two major papers are required. The first is a position paper relating to some aspect of the integrated poultry industry. The second is a business plan based on the computer project described below. The course covers all aspects of the commercial egg industry. This includes cage laying, environment and housing and business management. Students are expected to complete a major computer project involving a business analysis of an egg layer operation. This is a small lecture course with 20-70 students

*AS 375 and AS 335 have been combined into one course.

AS472 Amino acid metabolism
This course is a graduate level course studying amino acid nutrition of farm animals with emphasis on the monogastric species. This is a discussion class with 10-15 students.

Description of teaching effort for past 10 years:
AS 10 Freshman Orientation
This is an introductory course dealing with curricular issues, entrance into graduate/professional school and career exploration.

AS 15 Farm Animal Management:
Responsible for two week poultry section of course. This was an intensive 5-hour course which involved up to 19 hours of class time per week. The class consisted of three lecture periods and four to eight two-hour lab sections per week. An exam is given at the end of the two-week period. This course generally had from 50 to 130 students per semester.

AS 145 Selecting and Grading of Poultry:
Responsible for entire course. This is a laboratory course which covers USDA grades of poultry and eggs as well as judging of live birds for production and breeding purposes. A collegiate judging team which competes in the National Collegiate Poultry Contest is also coached from this course. This is a lab course with 5-10 students.

AS 335 Poultry Meat Production:
Responsible for entire course. Covered production, management, disease, incubation and hatchery management, brooding, growing, nutrition and business management. This is a laboratory course which involves the complete production of a small number of broilers. Students are taught the entire cycle of production from artificial insemination, incubation, diet formulation and mixing, brooding, growing and processing of the birds. This is a lecture course with 5-15 students.

AS 452 (AS440) Regulation of Food Intake:
Responsible for entire course. Graduate level course reviewing the area of regulation of food intake with emphasis on neurophysiological and neuroanatomical mechanisms involved. A graduate course with 5-10 students.

AS 212 Applied Nutrition: Responsible for one-fourth of the class. Lectures on practical feeding and nutrition of poultry. Laboratory covers least-cost formulation of poultry diets using linear programing. A lecture/lab course with 40-60 students

Guest lectures or labs have been given in FSN 100, AS 264, AS 304. A number of students have been involved in problems courses (AS200 and AS300) or research (AS490)

Teaching Grants Awarded

Innovation Grant "Industry Experience in Animal Sciences" $1049
On-Campus Internship "Threonine Requirement of Turkeys" $100
F21C Nutrition Cluster Grant (Undergraduate Summer Research Project) "Effect of Hippocampal Lesions on Food and Water Intake in the Chick" $1,500
Brill Professional Nutritionist Software : Donation of software for teaching and research. This program sells for $6000.
F21C Nutrition Cluster Grant (Undergraduate summer Research Project) "Pedigree of the paroxysmal chick and the effects of Neuropeptide Y on intake of the chick". $1500
F21C Nutrition Cluster Grant (Undergraduate summer Research Project) “Ideal protein for turkeys” $2500

Teaching Service and Development Activities

Participation in Quadrathlon- The quadrathalon is used for assessment of Animal Science students. Participation in the lab practical or quiz bowl has taken place each year.
Participation in Preview Mizzou- This has involved tours of the ASRC small animal unit to visiting high school students (5 years).
Participation in scholarship interviews for incoming freshmen- This has involved several trips and on-campus interviews with prospective MU Agriculture students.1990-1992
Participation in Career Opportunities Fair (St. Louis)- Consisted of bringing and displaying live poultry for junior high students examining career opportunities. 1991
Judge for College of Veterinary Medicine's teaching awards competition- computer section. 1990
Numerous farm tours and poultry displays for petting zoos through Block and Bridle and the community. (once per year)
Attended campus writing intensive workshop, 1990.
Future Farmers of America poultry contests. Area, regional and state contest responsibilities. The contest consists of live bird and product judging for contests which have 50-200 students participating. (1987-1990) (State contest 1991-1997)

Invited Presentations on Teaching

Macintosh Computer Usage in the Classroom. North Central Regional Teaching Symposium, 1990.
Panel discussion member at 1992 Campus Writing Intensive Workshop
Teaching Critical Thinking in the Classroom, MU's 1992 Teaching Workshop
The Writing Intensive Experience, 1992 Campus Writing Intensive Workshop

Regional Teaching Activities

Attended North Central Regional Teaching Symposium, Ohio State University, 1989.
Committee member for planning MU's North Central Regional Teaching Symposium, 1990.

Classroom Innovation

Dr. Firman has been a strong supporter of the Campus Writing Program and the renewed efforts on bringing critical thinking to the classroom. Each of the courses is taught in a problem solving manner where the instructor is seen as a source of information and guidance to the discussion rather than a giver of unrelated facts. The martial arts instruction provides a forum for a total teaching environment where mental, physical and spiritual development can be taught.

Advisement

Undergraduate Advisement has ranged from 15-35 students

Club Advising

Advisor and instructor for ShoReiShobuKan Karate Club for ten years. This club meets from 4-6 hours per week during the academic year. A fitness and self-defense program is taught as well as traditional martial arts including weaponry. Classes have included as many as 100 students per session, but generally have 30-50 participants per night. Dr. Firman has also given several related self-defense seminars on campus.

Dr. Firman was the advisor for the Block and Bridle Club (1990-1993) which is involved with livestock shows and other activities related to the Animal Sciences. The club is the second largest on campus with about 150 members and is recognized as one of the top B & B clubs in the nation. The club has a wide variety of activities and fund raisers throughout the year.

Dr. Firman currently averages two evening club activities per week as well as some weekend activities and has been on numerous trips with the clubs to Nebraska, Texas, North Dakota, Oklahoma and Kentucky.

Extension


Description of Responsibilities

Dr. Firman’s initial appointment was 50% extension which has been reduced to 20% currently. The current extension effort is detailed below as well as the efforts that were initiated early when the appointment was higher.

Dr. Firman is the state extension specialist devoted to the turkey industry in Missouri. The state is ranked in the top five in the US in turkey production with around 30,000,000 birds raised and processed in the state. The state is also a large broiler state and is now ranked in the top 10 in total poultry production. The value of the total industry to the state is about $1.5 billion. With no outstate staff designated to work with the industry, most of the teaching effort is directed towards companies and individual farmers. The large integrated firms that are typical throughout the industry do not need the same level of service as the individual farming operation considered usual in most other areas of agriculture. The level of teaching to these large integrated firms must be understandably high, with an emphasis on long term solutions to larger problems. Integration of information that is not readily available to these companies is the primary need in the extension teaching area. Obviously we attempt to integrate our problem solving research with our extension program whenever possible. The programs outlined below appeared to be the most efficient method of providing the needed service to this large and growing industry in the state.

Current Extension Programs

Least Cost Feed Formulation

This program is used as needed by several firms in the state. Basically, a set of diets can be computer formulated to a client's specifications on a rapid basis as needed. This is primarily done for turkeys, but has also been done for game birds and exotics. Dr. Firman has been a leader in bringing least-cost software into use in the department.

Liaison with industry groups:
Ex-officio member of Missouri Poultry Federation as well as with several other industry groups. Primary activities include participation in meetings and functions held by the groups.

Services to the Poultry Industry:
General services include answering a variety of questions pertaining to all aspects of the poultry industry. This may include work with realtors on property values or diagnosis of diseases over the phone for small flock owners. One videotape has also been produced as well as tours arranged for groups interested in the Missouri poultry industry.

Extension Programs Initiated (inactive)

Missouri Turkey Letter:
This is a newsletter written specifically for the turkey industry in Missouri. It was published quarterly and sent to over 500 producers, extension and industry personnel. The letter varies from 4-8 pages in length and provides information in the following areas: University News, Industry News, Research Reviews, Disease Update(by Dr. Bermudez, Veterinary Diagnostic Lab), Management Notes and Missouri Research Update

Missouri Turkey Conference:
This conference was begun in 1988. The conference is held in the spring of the year, preferably during Ag Science week. Primarily the conference has included an all-day program with presentations by faculty and students at MU on research, diseases or extension programs as well as several nationally recognized university or industry representatives. The Missouri Turkey Federation also has a meeting after the conference. (1987-1993)

Health Management Program:
This program was initiated jointly with Dr. Emmett McCune in the Veterinary Diagnostic Lab. Farm visits are arranged with turkey growers who may be having a persistent disease problem, poor efficiency or those who just wish to become more competitive. The program revolves around a total system for the farm evaluating disease prevention, nutrition and management to improve performance. Six farms have participated to some extent in this program.(1987-1993)

Extension Presentations

Missouri Poultry Convention, 1988

Missouri Poultry Convention, 1989

Southwest Center Field Day, 1989

State Extension Conference, 1989

In-Service Education Conference, 1989

Extension specialists workshop-MU, 1995

Briemyer Seminar in Ag Economics, 1996

Non-Poultry Presentations

Regional cattle workshops (2), 1995
Cattle Feeders Workshop-Amarillo TX, 1996
4 State Beef Tour, 1996
K-State Swine Conference, 1996
Commercial Swine Institute,1996
K-State Beef Conference, 1997
Numerous cattle industry conferences

A variety of radio and television spots relating to turkeys which have been used extensively (over 3500 times in 1995)

Service

Missouri Products Week display, 1987
Missouri Products Week display, 1988
Missouri Products Week display, 1989
Poultry Proficiency Award Selection, 1987-1997
Turkey Grill at State Fair, 1987-1993
Chair of Turkey Growers Workshop: Midwest Poultry Federation, 1990

Extension Publications:

Nutrient Requirements of Chickens and Turkeys MU Guide G8352 (Revised from previous publication)
Prevention of Poultry Disease MU Guide G8903
Flock Profiling for Monitoring Turkey Production MU Guide G8820

Management Notes are published in the Missouri Turkey Letter and are similar to a guidesheet in content:
Fundamentals of Ventilation
Intermittent Feeding Programs
Understanding Computerized Least-Cost Diet Formulation
Statistics
Effects of Temperature on Feed Efficiency of Turkeys
Floor space requirements for turkeys
The true costs of raising turkeys
Litter Management
Maximizing feed efficiency
Moving Turkeys
Basic Genetics

Service

A. Percent Effort for Current Year 10%
B. Summary of Responsibilities
Dr. Firman’s service responsibilities are similar to most faculty from the standpoint of committees at the departmental, college, campus and national level. The main difference would be the operations of the Rocheford Poultry Research Farm which is his responsibility both from a day to day operations standpoint and fiscally.

Committees

Campus Writing Board (campus)1994-95
Courses and Curriculum (college) Currently
Instructional Improvement (college) 1994
Academic affairs (department) 1992-present
Nutrition (department) 1988-present
Production and Management (department)1988-present
Nutrition Seminar (college)1990
Food Safety (college)1990
CAPC (college) 1996-1998
Rocheford Farm Operations (department) 1987-present
Poultry Processing Plant (department) 1995-present

National Level Service

Editorial Review Board - Poultry Science
Careers Committee- Poultry Science
Review papers in Nutrition and Physiology sections (Poultry Science)
Judge for paper and poster competitions at Poultry Science and Southeastern Poultry Science Assn. Meetings.
Poultry Science Teaching Award Chair, 1997

Professional Development

1986-Neuroscience Meetings
1986-Neural Peptides-Washington, D.C.
1989-North Central Regional Teaching Conference
1990-North Central Regional Teaching Conference
1982-1997-Poultry Science Association Meetings

International Experience (Consulting, speaking, visits)

Portugal
United Kingdom
Mexico
Canada
Thailand
China
S. Korea
India
Italy
France
Switzerland
Costa Rica
Turkey
Egypt
N Korea
Singapore
Malaysia
Philippines
Venezuela
South Africa
Japan
Russia
Austria
Kosovo
Azerbaijan